Imagine the situation. Let's say you are aware that you will never have children of your own and you are thinking about adopting a child. You have heard that children in orphanage can have very disfunctional heredity; intellectual retardation, uncontrollable passions, a tendency to vagrancy, theft and alcohol addiction.
And now you're wondering how much you need to believe this? Is the congenital factor really that strong? And, most importantly, what does it have to do with the children whose medical records are now in front of me?
How to settle this?
There is almost no way to figure this out without special training. You don't know what to look at in these medical records and you don't know what additional questions you need to ask about the child and their parents. For example, how old was the mother, when she gave birth? If she was 18 years old, the children are more likely to be healthy. If she was 40 years old, there is a chance that the mother has already drunk and tried drugs. For how long was the baby in an orphanage without a mother? If for more than a year, the situation is bad. But if you show the children to a qualified doctor, they will be able to say something important after the examination. All of this is important, but it's not about what is passen on the child with the genes. There are already a lot of problems that the child could get during the pregnancy of the mother and during the stay in an orphanage, so let's not forget that you wanted to deal with the congenital ones.
Leave these questions to the theorists, you are interested in something else. You don't need to know whether it is congenital or acquired. All you need to know is how healthy your child is and what their prospects of development are. Will they master higher education - or there's no hope? Can you figure this out on your own?
The answer is no. You can't. There's only one way for you to understand what opportunities and limitations this child has, what their tendecies and inclinitions are. You need to interact with them. Play with them, teach them, educate them. Start living with them. You can truly understand the characteristics of your child by interacting with them and seeing what the child learned from what you gave to them. And the better you work on the child, the more you can understand what you can do for them.
But the price for this experiment with unpredictable results is your life. Most of your life.